Smart Contract Analysis Tool

This project is maintained at oyente


Note: The tool is currently under development, please report any bugs you may find.

Quick Start

A container with the dependencies set up and the blockchain snapshot installed can be found here.

To open the container, install docker and run:

docker pull hrishioa/oyente && docker run -i -t hrishioa/oyente

To evaluate the greeter contract Inside the container, run:

cd /home/oyente/oyente && source ../dependencies/venv/bin/activate && python oyente.py greeter.sol

and you are done!


To run the benchmarks, the fastest way is to use the docker image.

The blockchain snapshot is in contract_data in the Github Repo and the benchmark results are in benchmarks/results.json. The benchmarks were run using a 5-minute timeout - using a longer timeout will give fewer incomplete executions.

In the container, run batch_run.py after activating the virtualenv. Results are in results.json once the benchmark completes.

The benchmarks take a long time and a lot of RAM in any but the largest of clusters, beware.

Benchmark Results

Bug Occurrences
Callstack Bug 4792
Reentrancy 3742
Time Dependancy 165
Concurrency 490
Total 11839
(Timeout) 5715

The results are different from those in the paper. This is an improved version of the tool, with fewer exceptions.


  1. solc and disasm from go-ethereum
  2. z3 Theorem Prover

Evaluating Ethereum Contracts

python oyente.py <contract filename>

And that's it! Run python oyente.py --help for a list of options.


The accompanying paper explaining the bugs detected by the tool can be found here.

Miscellaneous Utilities

A collection of the utilities that were developed for the paper are in Misc_Utils. Use them at your own risk - they have mostly been disposable.

  1. generate-graphs.py - Contains a number of functions to get statistics from contracts.
  2. get_source.py - The get_contract_code function can be used to retrieve contract source from EtherScan
  3. transaction_scrape.py - Contains functions to retrieve up-to-date transaction information for a particular contract.

Known Issues

If you encounter the unhashable instance error, please add the following to your class AstRef(Z3PPObject): in /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/z3.py:

def __hash__(self):
        return self.hash()

The latest version of Z3 does support this, but some previous version does not.